Recently, I was asked:
Why do you not recommend Access to use? Just curious. Read on page xi of your intro in Data Analysis Using SQL and Excel.
Just beginning a class in SQL and bought your text.
This is a very fair question and one that I try to avoid answering. Preferences on software can unleash religious passions. Access is a powerful environment for doing development work in a Microsoft environment, and it does support a version of SQL.
All databases deviate from ANSI-standard SQL, but MS Access deviates significantly (in my opinion) both from the standard and from other databases. From the functionality perspective, it lacks stored procedures, functions, and triggers. The "database" itself is a file engine and doesn't have built-in transaction support or ACID-compliance, although the Jet/ACE engine (typically used) does have this functionality.
From the perspective of learning SQL, I simply find that the SQL that Access supports is "too different" for my liking. Here are ten important differences:
- Access does not support the case statement, so conditional logic is done with the non-standard iif() function.
- Access requires parentheses around each pair-wise join, resulting in a proliferation of nesting in from clauses that only serves to confuse people learning SQL.
- Access join syntax requires the inner for inner join. While it may be a good idea to use inner for clarify, it is often omitted in practice (in other databases).
- Access does not support full outer join.
- Access does not allow union or union all in subqueries.
- Access requires the as for table aliases. In most databases, this is optional, and I prefer to only use as for column aliases. Ironically, the use of as for table aliases is forbidden in Oracle.
- Access uses double quotes to delimit strings (as opposed to single quotes) and is the only database (to my knowledge) that uses & as a string concatenation operator.
- Access uses * for the wildcard in like rather than %.
- Access allows BETWEEN
AND. This is allowed in other databases, but will always evaluate to false.
- Access does not support window/analytic functions (using the over and partition by clauses).
In addition, many people seem to want to use the wizards to generate SQL and learn from that. I find the output of the wizard to be an unreadable mess of parentheses and square braces and an impediment to learning to write good SQL.
In short, Access is a useful tool and there are many examples of it working well in practice. However, the Access query language is sufficiently different from other versions of SQL that I would recommend another free query engine instead. There are definitely other choices such as SQL Server Express, Postgres, Oracle Express, and MySQL. Data Analysis Using SQL and Excel uses SQL Server syntax for its examples.